CAES calls for your papers

Dear colleagues!

CAES editorial team calls for yours papers for CAES Vol. 4, № 2, that is going to be published in late May – early June 2018.

Deadline for submission is May 18.

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CAES Vol. 4, № 1

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Editor’s foreword

Articles:

Ainu-Minoan stock

Alexander Akulov

Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI) can completely answer the question: whether languages are related. VGCI is logical conjunction of two indexes: grammatical meanings sets correlation index and index of correlation of positional distributions of common meanings. If value of VGCI is about 0.4 or more then languages are related; if value of VGCI is about 0.3 or less then languages are not related. Right now it’s not possible to reconstruct Minoan/Keftiw verb completely, but it’s possible to conclude that Minoan verb is very close to that of Hattic since structures of Hattic verbs can be used as direct key for Minoan verbs found in ancient Egyptian papyruses.  On the other hand: VGCI of Hattic and Kabardinian is 0.41, VGCI of Kabardinian and Qiang is 0.38, and VGCI of Ainu and Qiang is 0.41. Thus due to transitivity of relatedness Ainu and Minoan are relatives (belong to the same stock).

Keywords: comparative linguistics; VGCI; Ainu; Minoan; Sino-Caucasian stock

Akulov_Ainu-Minoan

On distance in linguistics

Anton Kiseliov

A metric is an important measure of the objects similarity. In linguistics these objects are mainly words, sentences and languages. Word is known to be the multilevel concept consisting of phonemes, syllables, morphemes and so on. Thus the distance between two words can be calculated in rather different ways. Many distances united by the term edit distances show the ways one can transform a word into another one. The graph distance demonstrating semantic connections between words and functional connections between languages is also discussed. The pseudo-metric differing from the standard metric is shown to be applied to some linguistic problems.

Keywords: metric, distance, transposition, inversion, semantic, vocabulary, graph, pseudo-metric

Kiseliov_distance

New gods for a New World: observations on an epigraphic interplay between Greeks and Romans (Part 2)

Jenny Wallensten

In this paper is considered a certain type of close association between mortals and gods that developed during the late Hellenistic and Imperial era. The phenomenon can be traced in the epigraphic and in some numismatic sources, and features members of royal or Imperial houses honoured literally as New Gods, i.e.: Nero New (Neos) Apollo, Sabina New (Nea) Hera or Caracalla Neos Helios, etc. Why and when was an old god chosen for the creation and celebration of a new one? These titles are not just honorific and these combinations of mortal-gods are not random. They are a part of the constant, albeit not always direct, dialogue between rulers and subjects, between Roman emperors and Greek local communities. This particular conversation used traditional religion and civic display as its medium and was expressed through the language of mythology.

Keywords: Dedications; Ancient Greek Religion; Greek Epigraphy; Cult Epithets, Neos Theos

Wallensten_new_gods_2

Think pieces:

A brief exploration of the role of storytelling in doing and writing anthropology

Alexandra Dantzer

In this short essay my aim is to try to disclose the role of storytelling and narratives in anthropological discipline. By drawing on Tim Ingold`s understanding of the processes of getting to know phenomena existing in the world around us I shortly discuss the idea of fieldwork as a cognitive journey defined by reflexivity. When doing a fieldwork an anthropologist inevitably joins the narratives/stories narrated by informants with his/her own personal tales, i.e.: it means that ethnographic work presents conjunction between at least two narratives at a time. Lastly, fieldwork itself is a narrative animating the story of anthropology as a discipline.

Keywords: fieldwork, storytelling, narrative, anthropology, reflexivity

Dantzer_narratives

Why Facebook censors art?

Tresi Nonno

Recently we have learned that Facebook has censored a photo of a famous prehistoric female figurine (Venus of Willendorf) as a pornographic image. This is an egregious case, but it is in the line of Facebook censorship of different manifestations of human body and sexuality. Behind all these cases there is an agenda, i.e.: there are Islamic notions about human body and human sexuality. Also this tendency correlates well with the facts of banning/deleting large groups of atheists/agnostics by reports of radical Muslims. Facebook is a ‘ghetto’ of SJW which is a derivative of Marxism, which in its turn is a ‘secular’ derivative of Abrahamic tradition, so the fact that Facebook follows Abrahamic attitude toward human body and sexuality is completely logical. All people of civilization should struggle against the forces of obscurantism. Nudity and sexuality aren’t sin; a tradition that inspires hatred and obscurantism is.

Keywords: art; human sexuality; social network;  culturalism; multiculturalism

Nonno_Facebook

 

CAES Vol. 3, № 4

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Editor’s foreword

Articles:

Comparison of some early Minoan and pre-Minoan buildings with the ‘palace’ of Hacilar by matrix-vector method: preliminary notes on Anatolian origin of Minoan architecture

Alexander Akulov

Plan of any building can be represented as 3D vector consisting of the following components: number of elements/rooms, degree of adjacency of rooms, degree of direct passability. The closer are plans of buildings the higher is the corresponding degree of resemblance. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos of the Protopalatial stage (1900–1750 BC) and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar (5400 – 5200 BC) is 0.72. Degree of resemblance of Villa Alpha and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar is 0.98. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and Villa Alpha from Malia (2200–1900 BC) is 0.73. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and the central house of Myrtos (3000–2200 BC) is 0.57. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and a late Neolithic house of Knossos (4000 – 3000 BC) is 0.59. The palace of Knossos and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar are rather closely related.

Keywords: Anatolian – Minoan connection; Knossos; Hacilar; Minoan architecture; topology

Akulov_architecture_comparison

New gods for a new world: observations on an epigraphic interplay between Greeks and Romans (part 1)

Jenny Wallensten

In this paper is considered a certain type of close association between mortals and gods that developed during the late Hellenistic and Imperial era. The phenomenon can be traced in the epigraphic and in some numismatic sources, and features members of royal or Imperial houses honoured literally as New Gods, i.e.: Nero New (Neos) Apollo, Sabina New (Nea) Hera or Caracalla Neos Helios, etc. Why and when was an old god chosen for the creation and celebration of a new one? These titles are not just honorific and these combinations of mortal-gods are not random. They are a part of the constant, albeit not always direct, dialogue between rulers and subjects, between Roman emperors and Greek local communities. This particular conversation used traditional religion and civic display as its medium and was expressed through the language of mythology.

Keywords: Dedications; Ancient Greek Religion; Greek Epigraphy; Epithets, Neos Theos

Wallensten_New_gods

Think pieces:

A response to Ilse Schoep: some critical notes on interpreting the palace of Knossos as a temple

Alexander Akulov

Schoep supposes that the building with large court usually described as Knossos palace is actually a temple, but not a palace. Her conclusion is based on the fact that the large court remained immovable during all modifications of the building. From her point of view such practice correlates well with the practice of immobility of the most sacral place of a temple that existed in ancient Mesopotamia. It is rather incorrect to state that ancient Mesopotamia and Minoan Crete had similar practice since they could have different. This Mesopotamian analogy can’t yet be a proof since first of all its correctness and relevance should be proved. I suppose that it is more logical to say that the immobility of the large court could have utilitarian functions: the large court was used to maintain light and ventilation and the immobility of the court was determined by wind rose of the location.

Keywords: Minoan architecture; Minoan archaeology; Knossos palace

Akulov_a response_to_Schoep

Hypercomplex model of word form

Anton Kiseliov

Hypercomplex representation/model of word form is a mathematical model describing division of a word form into morphemes. The mathematical concept is based on two types of morphemes (the root morphemes and the affix ones) corresponding to two types of numbers. Root morphemes can be described by real part of hypercomplex numbers, while affix morphemes can be described by imaginary parts of hypercomplex numbers. This model gives us complete image of morphological structure of a word form. It describes all types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, suffixes, circumfixes, interfixes and transfixes. The model also shows composition and incorporation. Also the proposed model is compared with the linear model of word form invented by A.P. Volodin.

Keywords: hypercomplex number; root morpheme, affix morpheme, composition, incorporation, infix, transfix

Kiseliov_hypercomplex_model

Estimation degree of resemblance of plans of buildings by matrix-vector method

Tresi Nonno, Alexander Akulov

Plan of any building can be represented by the following parameters: number of rooms; Adjacency Index (it is calculated by corresponding matrix of adjacency that shows whether rooms are adjacent), Direct Passability Index (it is calculated by corresponding matrix of direct passability that shows whether there is direct passage between two rooms). These three parameters form 3D vectors. To estimate degree of resemblance of two plans should be estimated degree of resemblance of two corresponding vectors, i.e.: to estimate degree of correlation of each component of vectors and take arithmetical mean of indexes of correlation. The closer are plans of buildings the higher is the value of corresponding degree of resemblance. This procedure doesn’t require any universal threshold values since there are no cases of unrelatedness and the fact that two plans are much alike doesn’t mean they are unrelated, i.e.: in each case there are local threshold values.

Keywords: architecture; topology; matrix; formalization of semiotics

Nonno_Akulov_Matrix_vector_method

 

 

CAES Vol. 3, № 3

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Editor’s foreword

Articles:

How many phonemes might be ‘missing’?

Simon Brown

Pairs of phoneme inventories of a language obtained from different sources rarely agree.  Not only can the number of phonemes differ between sources, but some phonemes may be included in only one inventory.  The inevitable inference is that the total number of phonemes listed for a language is greater than the size of either of the inventories.  If two inventories are mutually incomplete, it is reasonable to infer that any inventory might be incomplete.  Using independently compiled pairs of inventories it is possible to estimate a number of phonemes that might be ‘missing’.  The apparent ‘completeness’ of inventories from pairs of sources in PHOIBLE Online appears to vary systematically.  Based on the 119 languages for which inventories from two sources are available, and after adjusting for the source bias, it is estimated that the ‘median inventory’ could be missing 4-5 phonemes from the total phoneme inventory of the corresponding language.

Keywords: contingency analysis; distribution; missing phonemes; phoneme inventory

Brown_missing_phonemes

Think pieces:

On the etymology of name Europa: Keftiw/Minoan deity Erupa/Erupā from London Medical Papyrus

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

In London Medical Papyrus, in incantation against samuna ubuqi illness there are two names of Keftiw deities. One of them has been determined as Erupa/Erupā that evidently is correlated with Europa of ancient Greek mythology. Key points of Greek myth are the following: Europa is connected with bull and with Crete. Keftiw/Minoan and Hattic seem to be relative, so it’s possible to make some conclusion on Keftiw word using Hattic:  word Erupa/Erupā seems to contain root *rup that can be correlated with Hattic root *lup that is a variant of word milup “bull”; this fact correlates well with facts known about Europa from Greek myth. Thus, initial meaning of name Erupa/Erupā can be, for instance: “of bull” or “a being/person of bull”. It seems that Erupa/Erupā was somehow connected with bull leaping.

Keywords: Minoan religion; Minoan language; Keftiw language; Keftiw; London Medical Papyrus

Akulov_Erupa

Reconstruction of some Minoan words through signs of Phaistos disc

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

Some signs of Phaistos disc look like pictures of certain items/beings, i.e.: it seems that image of an item which name began with certain syllable was used to record this syllable, so it’s possible to reconstruct some words of Keftiw/Minoan language. Have been taken signs which meanings are evident and which sounds were restored through Linear A and Linear B: sign “house” – wa, sign “shield” – qe, and sign “sheep” – me. Minoan/Keftiw language seems to be a relative of Hattic, so can be said the following: Hattic waael – “house” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “house” begins with wa, Hattic kip “to protect” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “shield” begins with qe, Hattic memen “scream of a sheep” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “sheep” begins with me. Thus, it’s possible to reconstruct approximate initial view of Minoan/Keftiw words: “house” – *ware, “shield” – *qepV, “sheep” – *meme.

Keywords: Minoan language; Phaistos disc; Hattic language; comparative reconstruction

Akulov_Minoan_words

The structure of verbs of Keftiw/Minoan incantation against samuna ubuqi disease from London Medical Papyrus demonstrates close resemblance with the structure of Hattic verb

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

In Keftiw/Minoan incantation against samuna ubuqi disease from London Medical Papyrus there three verbs: sabujajəjədʒa (a verb of movement), humakatu/humakātu, pawrəj/paurəj (supposedly verbs of oral/mental activity). The structure of these verbs demonstrates close resemblance with that of Hattic verb. In sabujajəjədʒa component sa- correlates with Hattic negative prefix šaš, –bu- correlates with Hattic marker of 2nd person singular subject/agent -u-, ʒa/ʃа correlates with Hattic suffix/particle – (supposedly optative). The component hu- of humakatu/humakātu is probably allomorph of above mentioned –bu-, –ma- looks like Hattic marker of patient/direct object of 1st person –m-. Component pa- of pawrəj/paurəj correlates with Hattic marker of 1st person singular agent/subject: fa-, and -w- correlates with a Hattic marker of object (supposedly an object marker of 3rd person).

Keywords: Minoan language; Keftiw language; Hattic language; comparative linguistics

Akulov_Keftiw_Hattic

Kuzu people

Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

Kuzu is one of autochthonic ethnic groups described in Nihon shoki. There is a rather detailed description of Kuzu people in 4th section of 10th (the scroll about emperor Ōjin) scroll and a short note in 3rd section of 3rd scroll (the scroll about emperor Jimmu). Kuzu seems to be a subgroup of Ainu because of the following: 1) Kuzu people lived alongside the river of Yoshino in mountain forest area; their food was: chestnuts, mushrooms, frogs and trout; 2) it is said that Kuzu people strike their mouth when they sing, that looks much alike description of playing a jaw harp (jaw harp has been well known in Ainu culture since long ago); 3) word Kuzu looks much alike Ainu word kur [kuɾ] that means “human being”, “man” and that was widely used in self-namings by Ainu.

Keywords: Kuzu people; evidences of Ainu in Nihon shoki; Ainu history; Ainu; Nihon shoki

Nonno_Kuzu

CAES Vol. 3, № 2

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Articles:

A phylogenetic interpretation of the canonical formula of myths by Levi-Strauss

Marc Thuillard, Jean-Loïc Le Quellec

Abstract:

Lévi-Strauss’ canonical formula and Mosko’s narrative formula have a simple interpretation within the theoretical framework of phylogenetics. The canonical formula represents a complex but by far not unique way of combining 2 and 3-states characters in a phylogenetic tree description of myths. The canonical formula describes an instance of myth’s evolution that can be described exactly by a perfect phylogenetic tree. Mosko’s formula describes a completely different scheme of evolution. Mosko’s formula is typically the result of a fast evolution of mythemes resulting possibly in all combinations of binary characters. The evolution of myths corresponds quite often to intermediary situations. This observation may explain why the canonical formula has been identified only in a limited number of instances.

Keywords:  Lévi-Strauss; canonical formula; narrative formula; myths; phylogeny

Thuillard_Le_Quellec_canonical_formula

Think pieces

A Minoan deity from London Medicine Papyrus

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

In London Medicine Papyrus, in incantation against samuna ubuqi illness there are two names of Minoan deities. One of them is determined as Maja that evidently is correlated with Maia of ancient Greek mythology. Maia of ancient Greek mythology is the oldest of seven Pleiades. Pleiades were connected with seafaring since the season of navigation in Mediterranean region began with their heliacal rising. Minoan Maia could be protector of sailors; use of name Maja in an incantation against a disease is completely logical since seafaring was very important of Minoan people, and so a deity that was protector of sailors evidently was considered as a mighty one and could also be an effective protector against other troubles. The fact that name Maja is written with determinative “god”, but not “goddess” in the incantation while in Greek mythology Maia is goddess, hints that initially Maja could be androgynous/bigender deity.

Keywords: London Medicine Papyrus; Minoan deity; Minoan language; Minoan; Kaftiw

Akulov_Minoan_deity

Actual problems of Ainu language revitalization

Alexander Akulov, Tresi Nonno

Abstrac:

It was supposed that social networks and virtual worlds could be good platforms for Ainu language revitalization. Also it was supposed that the conception of native tongue should be thrown as well as conception of ‘native’ gender. Anybody who can produce spontaneous utterances in a language should be considered as its speaker. However, it has appeared that it’s not easy to create a platform for revitalization. Second Life has appeared to be nothing else, but just a huge mall where any activity except stereotyped isn’t welcomed. Facebook has appeared to be a ‘ghetto’ of so called UN ‘hippies’ who mostly want to see indigenous cultures as enigmatic exotics only. Funds also provide little support for real activists of revitalization.

Keywords: Ainu language; language revitalization; virtualization

Akulov_Nonno_Ainu_revitalization_problems

Some critical thoughts on the concept of tradition

Yelena Kolesnikova

Abstract:

Anthropologists as well as plain people often use the concepts of tradition/traditional values/traditional culture. They both suppose that tradition is something contraposed modernity/contemporaneity. Really any culture is based on certain traditions. Traditions are actually regularly performed practices so any culture is based on certain traditions since any culture always supposes certain set of regularly performed practices. Also we should keep in mind that tradition also supposes invention of new issues. Also we should keep in mind that the activity of anthropologists, i.e.: the fact that they pay much attention to traditional societies and contrapose so called traditional societies to modernity provide help to the forces of obscurantism.

Keywords: tradition; anthropology; history

Kolesnikova_the_concept_of_tradition

Yayoi culture as a fake (preliminary notes)

Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

Among historians are spread the following stereotypes: roots of Japanese culture were formed in the period of Yayoi, and Jōmon culture didn’t influence on forming Japanese culture. However, Yayoi pottery and architecture are just continuations of Late Jōmon pottery and architecture. Perception of continental issues (for instance: dōtaku) in the period of Yayoi was very irregular, and introduced items became object of cargo cults. In the period of Kofun on the contrary we can see regular spreading of ‘Korean’ techniques. Regular spreading of certain techniques should necessarily correlate with regular presence of corresponding ethnic group. Thus, it is possible to say that there was no serious presence of ‘Korean’ ethnic element upon Japanese archipelago until the beginning of Kofun period. Yayoi period actually should not be considered as a separated culture, but just as a continuation of Late Jōmon.

Keywords: Yayoi; Late Jōmon; Japanese history; interpretation of archaeological data

Nonno_Yayoi_fake

CAES Vol. 3, № 1

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Editor’s foreword

Articles:

The verb of Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu: a general overview 

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

Original data on Kuril-Kamchatka idiom are rather meager, but as far as the dialect is rather close to the dialect of Kushiro/Shiranuka so it was possible to use the data of the last in the reconstruction of Kuril-Kamchatka grammar. When there were no direct data on Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu and when Kushiro dialect offered unique forms which weren’t represented in other dialect, then more universal forms were chosen. The reconstructed idiom has certain unique features: two desiderative forms instead of one; unique negative particle eyn instead of habitual Ainu somo. From the other hand tenses and modalities are closer to those of Southern Hokkaido dialects.

Key words: Ainu language; Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu; Ainu verb

Akulov_Kamchatka_Ainu_verb

The distribution of phoneme inventory and language evolution  

Simon Brown

Abstract:

The number of phonemes varies widely among languages, ranging from about 10 to more than 140.  The overall distribution of phonemes is positively skewed and can be reasonably approximated by the lognormal distribution.  This distribution is generally associated with multiplicative processes from which model-dependent estimates of the rates of growth of language families and the phoneme inventory of individual languages can be obtained.  Using the inventories in UPSID, one simple model is used to show that vowel and consonant inventories differ in their rates of growth.  While other appropriate models should be considered, this general approach provides a means of learning more about phoneme change.

Key words: distribution; growth; language evolution; phoneme inventory

Brown_phoneme

Think pieces:

Some notes on the grammatical structure of a verb from a Minoan incantation from London Medicine Papyrus 

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

Word sabujajəjədja from a Minoan incantation from London Medicine Papyrus is a verb of movement. Its ending: -ja (actually -sha) correlates with -se of Phaistos disc. This -se correlates with Hattic –, which correlates with Kabardinian –ś. Kabardinian –ś expresses affirmative mood, so Hattic –, -se of Phaistos disc, -sha of the incantation express alike meanings: affirmative/optative. (Previously has been found serious resemblance of Hattic verbal grammar and that of Phaistos disc idiom; also has been proved relatedness of Hattic and Kabardinian). Component sa of sabujajəjədja correlates with Hattic negative prefix šaš. Component bu can be a marker of agent or a compound of agent and patient markers. The rest part of the word: jajəjəd is left-handed triplication of jed that is the main root and that probably means “to approach”. In current context triplication means intensifying. Thus, sabujajəjədja probably means “let it not to approach”.

Key words: Minoan; Kaftiw; Minoan language in Egyptian recordings; London Medicine Papyrus

Akulov_Kaftiw_incantation

How to estimate degree of resemblance of semiotic systems?   

Alexander Akulov, Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

In order to estimate degree of resemblance of semiotic systems first of all they should be represented as structures to which formal methods can be applied. Semiotic systems should be represented as ordered pair of the following view: < A ; Ω > where A is set of concepts / memes and Ω is a set of contextual distributions determined upon A. Any set of related concepts is A set; any relations determined upon this A form Ω set. Any semiotic system can be represented as set of elements with only two binary relations: subordination and similarity. Elements of Ω sets of certain particular semiotic system are relations existing between elements of corresponding A set. Degree of correlation of two semiotic systems is superposition of degrees of correlation of A sets and Ω sets. The more similar are A sets and Ω sets of compared systems the higher is the index of correlation.

Key words: semiotics; formalization of semiotics; abstract algebra; set theory

Akulov_Nonno_semiotic_systems_correlation

Some thoughts on the revitalization of Nanai language 

Vasily Kharitonov

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to the contemporary sociolinguistic situation of Nanai language (one of Tungusic languages), and ideas about its revitalization. Main problems are the following: low activity of Nanai people, gaps between different groups and institutions, lack of good materials for Nanai language learning. I propose some initial actions for attempt of revitalization of Nanai language; main tasks are located in social sphere: to work with the aged people in order to softer their reaction to language competences of the youth; to work with the youth in order to inspire them to learn Nanai language and to make different interesting projects with Nanai language: like music, discussion clubs et c. One of the main tasks is organizing Nanai language nests.

Key words: Tungusic languages; Nanai language; endangered languages revitalization; indigenous languages; sociolinguistics

Kharitonov_Nanai_sociolinguistics

CAES Vol 2, № 4

cover2_31

Editor’s foreword

Articles:

An examination of the calibration of linguistic distance. Part II Covariates 

Simon Brown

Abstract:

The assessment of linguistic relatedness is often based on the analysis of word lists to estimate the distance between languages.  To relate the distance to a divergence time requires established calibration data and a model representing the underlying processes of language change.  However, the available calibration data may be based on different sorts of evidence, come from different geographical regions and represent different language families, for example.  Covariates such as these can impact significantly on the estimated divergence time.  This reinforces concerns about the selection of calibration data, especially when just a small number of values are chosen.

Key words:  dating evidence; geographical region; linguistic distance; model dependence

Brown_covariates_2nd_part

Commented translation of the Cannibal Hymn

Anna Dvornichenko

Abstract:

Pyramid Texts include significant information about early Egyptian religion, rituals and society; however, meaning of the majority of spells is not completely clear for researchers. Cannibal Hymn is one of the most famous and complicated spell which is contained in Pyramid and Coffin Texts, so different egyptologists have devoted articles to this interesting spell. In this paper my commented, interlinear translation and transliteration of Cannibal Hymn are represented, and I propose my interpretation of content of this utterance based on Egyptian mythological concepts and ancient Egyptian historical realities. Also are offered explanations of certain unclear words which are debatable among egyptologists.

Key words: Cannibal Hymn; Pyramid Texts; Egyptian religious; literature; myths

Dvornichenko_Cannibal_Hymn

Think pieces:

The idiom of Phaistos disc seems to be a relative of Hattic language

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

Language of the disc has reduplication of root (blocks A3, A15) and well elaborated prefixation; it means that Minoan can probably be relative of Anatolian languages, or Hattic, or Sumerian (languages which also have well elaborated prefixation). Having attached readings of some known signs I discovered that certain syllables inside Minoan verbs are distributed in very alike positions as certain grammatical markers inside Hattic verb. For example: all verbs of the disc have se in terminal right positions that correlates with Hattic particle which is placed in the same position; there are many verbs with –qe- suffix that correlates with Hattic –e- suffix (supposedly a marker of tense/aspect); blocks A3, A15 have syllable te placed in the same position as Hattic orientation/location marker –te-; block A22 has sylable te in terminal left

Key words: Phaistos disc; Minoan language; Hattic language

Akulov_Minoan_Hattic

History of Japanese culture interpreted in the light of culturalism

Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

Cultures of cosmocentric paradigm demonstrate high interest in nature, high tolerance toward different manifestations of human body.  Cultures of sociocentric paradigm demonstrate low interest in nature, low tolerance toward manifestations of human body, high interest in morality. Cultures of the same paradigm communicate rather easily; communication of cultures belonging to different paradigms usually leads to appearing of cargo cults. Communication of cultures belonging to the same paradigm also can lead to appearing of cargo cults: Confucianism in Japan was cargo cult since it didn’t become social lift. Japanese culture is cosmocentric since its base (Jōmon) was cosmocentric. Spreading of rice culture inspired weakening of cosmocentric trend. Kokugaku movement and Meiji Restoration were first steps to the restoration of initial cosmocentric values; however they didn’t deconstruct patterns of cargo Confucianism. True restoration of cosmocentric paradigm began after WWI since values of contemporary Western civilization are much alike those of Jōmon.

Key words: culturalism; cosmocentrism; sociocentrism; history of Japan

Nonno_Japanese_culture_history

On Ainu etymology of names Izanagi and Izanami

Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

Names Izanagi and Izanami are recorded by completely meaningless combinations of kanji; existing interpretations of these names are folk etymologies, i.e.: it means that Izanagi and Izanami seem not to be words of Japanese origin. Izanagi and Izanami belong to the little amount of kami who form spouse pairs: there is about 6% of such kami in first scroll of Nihon Shoki, such type of kami is rather widely represented in Ainu folklore. Ending gi in Izanagi correlates with ending kur used in male names of Ainu kamuy/heroes ending mi in Izanami correlates with ending mat used in female names of Ainu kamuy/heroes. Component izana seems to have originated from ancient Ainu form: *’iso-ne that means “to be bearful”, “to be lucky in hunting”, “to be rich”; and thus, initial forms of Izanagi was *’Iso-ne-kwr “Bearful man”and initial form of Izanami was *’Iso-ne-mat “Bearful woman”.

 Key words: Izanagi; Izanami; Shinto; Ainu issues in Shinto; etymology of kami names

Nonno_Izanagi_and_Izanami