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Call for papers

Dear colleagues,
CAES editors team calls for your papers for CAES Vol. 4, N. 4, that is going to be published in late November – early December. Deadline for submission is November 21.

 

CAES Vol. 4, № 3

cover_4_2

Editor’s foreword

Think pieces:

Traces of Yeniseian people upon the East  European plain 

Alexander Akulov

In North and central part of the East European plain there are many hydronyms which are usually supposed to be of Finno-Ugric origin, but actually can’t be sufficiently explained through any of existing Finno-Ugric language. These hydronyms can be subdivided into three groups: 1) hydronyms with: [sa]/[ʃa]/[ʒa]/[ta]/[da]/[ra]/[na] ending, 2) with [ga] ending, 3) with [ma]/[va] ending. These hydronyms can be explained through Yeniseain languages, for instance, in Ket language: /sesj/ – “river” /qoksj/ – “stream”, “creek” /ulj/ – “water”. In an ancient Yeniseian language the root for “river” could probably have variants [ses] and [tet] and then it is possible to suppose the following transformations: [ses]/*[sas] à [sa] à [ʃa] à [ʒa], [tet]/*[tat] à [ta] à  [da]/[ra] à [na]. Hydronyms with [ga] ending correlate with Ket root [qoksj]; and hydronyms with [ma]/[va] ending correlate with Ket root [ulj] “water”.

Keywords: Yeniseian languages; substrate hydronymy; Pit-Comb ware technocomplex

Akulov_Yeniseian_hydronymy

Where can Kaskaean settlements be found? Some preliminary notes on the topography of  Kaskaean land

Alexander Akulov

Hittite sources about Kaska had no aims to describe Kaskaean land per se, but only described those Kaskaean terrains which were close to Hittite land, while most of Kaskaean lands were unknown for Hittites. Toponymy is the key for Kaskaean topography. Many Kaskaean toponyms were initially related to rivers, so it is perspective to look at names of rivers of Black Sea region.  Kaska people were a branch of Hattians and a ‘bridge’ between Hattians and people speaking Northwest Caucasian languages. The most perspective location in Kaskaean region is Özlüce/Gelevara river. Word Gelevara contains component –vara that correlates with Hattic root ur(a/i) “well”, “spring” and with Common West Caucasian ʕarə “stream”, “torrent”. In Kaskaean region there are no other modern names of rivers containing -ura/-vara component: it seems that in the basin of Gelevara the density of Kaskaean population was relatively high and Kaskaean settlements potentially can be found there.

Keywords: Kaska; topography of Kaska; Kaskaean toponymy; Gelevara river; Bronze Age Anatolia

Akulov_Kaska_topography 

On the possibility of representation of any  culture as an algebraic  structure

Tresi Nonno

When someone says that certain culture can’t be subjected to math methods of description, it means that the person imagines the culture as something that is outside the process of history. Such ideas don’t help the progress of ethnosemiotics, but only provide help to different obscurantist movements. The fact that different cultures are guided by different logics should not abash us at all since any cultures can be represented as an ordered pair of the following view: <A; Ω> where A is a set of concepts and Ω is a set of distributions determined upon A. Different <A; Ω> pairs can be compared and degrees of likeness can be estimated. There can be certain difficulties with degrees of correlation of different A sets, in such cases particular elements of different A sets should be represented as <A; Ω> pairs and then compared the same way as semiotic systems.

Keywords: cultural anthropology; ethnosemiotics; cultural anthropology theory; ethnosemiotics theory; math methods in cultural anthropology and ethnosemiotics

Nonno_culture_as_algebraic_structure

A general overview of the chronology of  the Pit-Comb Ware technocomplex in the basin of Lake Onega  

Tatyana Vasilyeva,   Alexander Akulov

The chronology of the Pit-Comb Ware can be subdivided into two stages: early stage (end of 5th – end of 4th millennia BPE) and late stage (end of 4th millennium – the beginning of 3rd millennium BPE). And the early stage consists of two phases. The first phase is represented by thin-walled vessels of semi-ovate shape with a rounded or rounded-conical bottom; the clay of these vessels has a moderate admixture of sand/grus; ornaments are mainly formed by horizontal patterns of pits. In the second phase vessels retain forms of the previous phase; appears an undetermined organic admixture; ornaments are mainly made by prints of rope. Late stage differs seriously from the preceding one: pottery of the late stage is represented by large thick-walled pots made of rough, badly mixed clay with an abundant admixture of grus/sand. Forms of vessels are more diverse, there are sharpened bottoms and more variable ornamentation.

Keywords: Pit-Comb Ware; Pit-Comb Ware periodization; Neolithic pottery of Karelia

Vasilyeva_Akulov_Pit-Comb-Ware-Periodization

Magic in African art

Yuliya Vorotilova

The article is devoted to magic in African traditional symbols. According to the Makilam, in all the various interpretations of the magic proposed by sciences that study the Other, there arises the problem of how to transcribe the thinking of a culture of oral tradition which does not use writing. People who are close to Nature do not reflect on their lives and work using formal logic. Any attempts to reduce the magic spirit to its mythic thought or to logic mean that it is a strictly mental entity. We need to find another sort of logic of the psychic dimension, which is hardly possible to be defined in terms of our binary, technical and mathematical modes of thinking.

Keywords: African symbols; magic, art, the adinkra, the knot symbol

Vorotilova_Magic_in_African_art

CAES Vol. 4, № 2

cover_4_2

Editor’s foreword

Articles:

New gods for a new world: observations on an epigraphic interplay between Greeks and Romans (part 3)

Jenny Wallensten

In this paper, I examine the appearance of a certain type of close association between mortals and gods that developed during the late Hellenistic and Imperial era. The phenomenon can be traced in the epigraphic and to some extent numismatic sources, and features members of royal or Imperial houses honoured literally as New Gods, i.e., Nero New (Neos) Apollo, Sabina New (Nea) Hera or Caracalla Neos Helios, etc. Why and when was an old god chosen for the creation and celebration of a new one? I show that these titles are not purely honorific and secondly that these combinations mortal-gods are not random. Rather, they are part of the constant, albeit not always direct, dialogue between ruler and subjects, between Roman emperors and Greek local communities. This particular conversation used traditional religion and civic display as its medium and was expressed through the common language of mythology.

Keywords: Dedications; Ancient Greek Religion;  Greek Epigraphy; Cult Epithets; Neos Theos

Wallensten_New gods for a new world_3

Think pieces:

Transformational distance: a tool of estimating degree of resemblance of architectural forms

Alexander Akulov

Plan of any building can be converted into another by a certain set of elementary transformations. Elementary transformations are the following: creating a wall; deleting a wall; creating a hole/passage; deleting/closing a hole/passage. Transformational distance is number of elementary transformations which should be done for transforming one structure into another: it is supposed that one elementary transformation is one step. Transformational distance is a sample of semimetrics. It is possible to say that transformational distance has been inspired by Levenshtein distance that is the minimum number of substitutions, deletions or insertions needed for words changing. The closer are certain buildings the lower is value of the corresponding transformational distance.

Keywords: architecture; metrics; transformational distance; space syntax; formalization of semiotics

Akulov_transformational_model

Reconsider virtual world visual culture

Hsiao-Cheng (Sandrine) Han

Most of my previous research participants were Westerners, and those research findings showed that Third Culture residents must learn to be more accepting and tolerant. However, the few non-Westerners I interviewed did not agree with this statement. Therefore, I wonder, what if the majority of the research participants were not Westerner, would the research result be similar? I wonder, in virtual worlds, who is benefited from the cultural creations? Who are the creators? What messages are they delivering? And who are the audiences? What they might think about the culture that is appropriated? Maybe cultural exchanges and mutual respect are the solutions to cultural appropriation in virtual worlds?

Keywords: virtual world; visual culture; Third Culture; Barthes; culture appropriation

Han_virtual_world_visual_culture

Some thoughts on the history of Ainu nominalizing suffix -i/-hi in its connection with indefinite object/patient marker i-

Tresi Nonno

In Ainu language there is nominalizing suffix: -i/-hi and there is indefinite patient prefix: i-. It is possible to say that the prefix has meanings of “something”, somebody” and the suffix has meanings of “item”, “issue”. V and VC syllables of modern Ainu were ʔV and ʔVC syllables correspondingly in Late Jōmon – Yayoi. And thus, it is possible to say that both morphemes had completely the same material implementation: *ʔi. And, thus, it is possible to conclude that modern suffix -i/-hi and modern prefix i- are derivations of the same morpheme, i.e.: *ʔi that seems to have been a fully significant word meaning “item”, “issue” “something” in Late Jōmon Ainu and could be placed left hand and right hand from the nuclear position. Prepositive *ʔi later became prefix and postpositive *ʔi later became suffix.

Keywords: Ainu language; Ainu language history; nominalization; indefinite patient

Nonno_i_hi

The code of Africa: adinkra

Yuliya Vorotilova

The article is devoted to the African symbols of adinkra and their meaning for understanding the culture and way of life of Ashanti people, who live in the southern part of Ghana. They are a “translation of thoughts and ideas, expressing and symbolizing the values and beliefs of the people among whom they occur”. The most important problem for researchers is that linguists do not regard adinkra as true writing. The author suggests that adinkra may be the ancient mathematics of Ashanti. The multi-faceted nature of the concept of adinkra and the sphere of its application in modern society is especially noted.

Keywords: Ghana; Ashanti; adinkra; symbols; code; cloth; clothing; traditions

Vorotilova_adinkra

 

CAES Vol. 4, № 1

cover_4_1

Editor’s foreword

Articles:

Ainu-Minoan stock

Alexander Akulov

Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI) can completely answer the question: whether languages are related. VGCI is logical conjunction of two indexes: grammatical meanings sets correlation index and index of correlation of positional distributions of common meanings. If value of VGCI is about 0.4 or more then languages are related; if value of VGCI is about 0.3 or less then languages are not related. Right now it’s not possible to reconstruct Minoan/Keftiw verb completely, but it’s possible to conclude that Minoan verb is very close to that of Hattic since structures of Hattic verbs can be used as direct key for Minoan verbs found in ancient Egyptian papyruses.  On the other hand: VGCI of Hattic and Kabardinian is 0.41, VGCI of Kabardinian and Qiang is 0.38, and VGCI of Ainu and Qiang is 0.41. Thus due to transitivity of relatedness Ainu and Minoan are relatives (belong to the same stock).

Keywords: comparative linguistics; VGCI; Ainu; Minoan; Sino-Caucasian stock

Akulov_Ainu-Minoan

On distance in linguistics

Anton Kiseliov

A metric is an important measure of the objects similarity. In linguistics these objects are mainly words, sentences and languages. Word is known to be the multilevel concept consisting of phonemes, syllables, morphemes and so on. Thus the distance between two words can be calculated in rather different ways. Many distances united by the term edit distances show the ways one can transform a word into another one. The graph distance demonstrating semantic connections between words and functional connections between languages is also discussed. The pseudo-metric differing from the standard metric is shown to be applied to some linguistic problems.

Keywords: metric, distance, transposition, inversion, semantic, vocabulary, graph, pseudo-metric

Kiseliov_distance

New gods for a New World: observations on an epigraphic interplay between Greeks and Romans (Part 2)

Jenny Wallensten

In this paper is considered a certain type of close association between mortals and gods that developed during the late Hellenistic and Imperial era. The phenomenon can be traced in the epigraphic and in some numismatic sources, and features members of royal or Imperial houses honoured literally as New Gods, i.e.: Nero New (Neos) Apollo, Sabina New (Nea) Hera or Caracalla Neos Helios, etc. Why and when was an old god chosen for the creation and celebration of a new one? These titles are not just honorific and these combinations of mortal-gods are not random. They are a part of the constant, albeit not always direct, dialogue between rulers and subjects, between Roman emperors and Greek local communities. This particular conversation used traditional religion and civic display as its medium and was expressed through the language of mythology.

Keywords: Dedications; Ancient Greek Religion; Greek Epigraphy; Cult Epithets, Neos Theos

Wallensten_new_gods_2

Think pieces:

A brief exploration of the role of storytelling in doing and writing anthropology

Alexandra Dantzer

In this short essay my aim is to try to disclose the role of storytelling and narratives in anthropological discipline. By drawing on Tim Ingold`s understanding of the processes of getting to know phenomena existing in the world around us I shortly discuss the idea of fieldwork as a cognitive journey defined by reflexivity. When doing a fieldwork an anthropologist inevitably joins the narratives/stories narrated by informants with his/her own personal tales, i.e.: it means that ethnographic work presents conjunction between at least two narratives at a time. Lastly, fieldwork itself is a narrative animating the story of anthropology as a discipline.

Keywords: fieldwork, storytelling, narrative, anthropology, reflexivity

Dantzer_narratives

Why Facebook censors art?

Tresi Nonno

Recently we have learned that Facebook has censored a photo of a famous prehistoric female figurine (Venus of Willendorf) as a pornographic image. This is an egregious case, but it is in the line of Facebook censorship of different manifestations of human body and sexuality. Behind all these cases there is an agenda, i.e.: there are Islamic notions about human body and human sexuality. Also this tendency correlates well with the facts of banning/deleting large groups of atheists/agnostics by reports of radical Muslims. Facebook is a ‘ghetto’ of SJW which is a derivative of Marxism, which in its turn is a ‘secular’ derivative of Abrahamic tradition, so the fact that Facebook follows Abrahamic attitude toward human body and sexuality is completely logical. All people of civilization should struggle against the forces of obscurantism. Nudity and sexuality aren’t sin; a tradition that inspires hatred and obscurantism is.

Keywords: art; human sexuality; social network;  culturalism; multiculturalism

Nonno_Facebook

 

CAES Vol. 3, № 4

cover_3_4_1

Editor’s foreword

Articles:

Comparison of some early Minoan and pre-Minoan buildings with the ‘palace’ of Hacilar by matrix-vector method: preliminary notes on Anatolian origin of Minoan architecture

Alexander Akulov

Plan of any building can be represented as 3D vector consisting of the following components: number of elements/rooms, degree of adjacency of rooms, degree of direct passability. The closer are plans of buildings the higher is the corresponding degree of resemblance. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos of the Protopalatial stage (1900–1750 BC) and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar (5400 – 5200 BC) is 0.72. Degree of resemblance of Villa Alpha and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar is 0.98. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and Villa Alpha from Malia (2200–1900 BC) is 0.73. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and the central house of Myrtos (3000–2200 BC) is 0.57. Degree of resemblance of the palace of Knossos and a late Neolithic house of Knossos (4000 – 3000 BC) is 0.59. The palace of Knossos and the ‘palace’ of Hacilar are rather closely related.

Keywords: Anatolian – Minoan connection; Knossos; Hacilar; Minoan architecture; topology

Akulov_architecture_comparison

New gods for a new world: observations on an epigraphic interplay between Greeks and Romans (part 1)

Jenny Wallensten

In this paper is considered a certain type of close association between mortals and gods that developed during the late Hellenistic and Imperial era. The phenomenon can be traced in the epigraphic and in some numismatic sources, and features members of royal or Imperial houses honoured literally as New Gods, i.e.: Nero New (Neos) Apollo, Sabina New (Nea) Hera or Caracalla Neos Helios, etc. Why and when was an old god chosen for the creation and celebration of a new one? These titles are not just honorific and these combinations of mortal-gods are not random. They are a part of the constant, albeit not always direct, dialogue between rulers and subjects, between Roman emperors and Greek local communities. This particular conversation used traditional religion and civic display as its medium and was expressed through the language of mythology.

Keywords: Dedications; Ancient Greek Religion; Greek Epigraphy; Epithets, Neos Theos

Wallensten_New_gods

Think pieces:

A response to Ilse Schoep: some critical notes on interpreting the palace of Knossos as a temple

Alexander Akulov

Schoep supposes that the building with large court usually described as Knossos palace is actually a temple, but not a palace. Her conclusion is based on the fact that the large court remained immovable during all modifications of the building. From her point of view such practice correlates well with the practice of immobility of the most sacral place of a temple that existed in ancient Mesopotamia. It is rather incorrect to state that ancient Mesopotamia and Minoan Crete had similar practice since they could have different. This Mesopotamian analogy can’t yet be a proof since first of all its correctness and relevance should be proved. I suppose that it is more logical to say that the immobility of the large court could have utilitarian functions: the large court was used to maintain light and ventilation and the immobility of the court was determined by wind rose of the location.

Keywords: Minoan architecture; Minoan archaeology; Knossos palace

Akulov_a response_to_Schoep

Hypercomplex model of word form

Anton Kiseliov

Hypercomplex representation/model of word form is a mathematical model describing division of a word form into morphemes. The mathematical concept is based on two types of morphemes (the root morphemes and the affix ones) corresponding to two types of numbers. Root morphemes can be described by real part of hypercomplex numbers, while affix morphemes can be described by imaginary parts of hypercomplex numbers. This model gives us complete image of morphological structure of a word form. It describes all types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, suffixes, circumfixes, interfixes and transfixes. The model also shows composition and incorporation. Also the proposed model is compared with the linear model of word form invented by A.P. Volodin.

Keywords: hypercomplex number; root morpheme, affix morpheme, composition, incorporation, infix, transfix

Kiseliov_hypercomplex_model

Estimation degree of resemblance of plans of buildings by matrix-vector method

Tresi Nonno, Alexander Akulov

Plan of any building can be represented by the following parameters: number of rooms; Adjacency Index (it is calculated by corresponding matrix of adjacency that shows whether rooms are adjacent), Direct Passability Index (it is calculated by corresponding matrix of direct passability that shows whether there is direct passage between two rooms). These three parameters form 3D vectors. To estimate degree of resemblance of two plans should be estimated degree of resemblance of two corresponding vectors, i.e.: to estimate degree of correlation of each component of vectors and take arithmetical mean of indexes of correlation. The closer are plans of buildings the higher is the value of corresponding degree of resemblance. This procedure doesn’t require any universal threshold values since there are no cases of unrelatedness and the fact that two plans are much alike doesn’t mean they are unrelated, i.e.: in each case there are local threshold values.

Keywords: architecture; topology; matrix; formalization of semiotics

Nonno_Akulov_Matrix_vector_method

 

 

CAES Vol. 3, № 3

cover3_3_1

Editor’s foreword

Articles:

How many phonemes might be ‘missing’?

Simon Brown

Pairs of phoneme inventories of a language obtained from different sources rarely agree.  Not only can the number of phonemes differ between sources, but some phonemes may be included in only one inventory.  The inevitable inference is that the total number of phonemes listed for a language is greater than the size of either of the inventories.  If two inventories are mutually incomplete, it is reasonable to infer that any inventory might be incomplete.  Using independently compiled pairs of inventories it is possible to estimate a number of phonemes that might be ‘missing’.  The apparent ‘completeness’ of inventories from pairs of sources in PHOIBLE Online appears to vary systematically.  Based on the 119 languages for which inventories from two sources are available, and after adjusting for the source bias, it is estimated that the ‘median inventory’ could be missing 4-5 phonemes from the total phoneme inventory of the corresponding language.

Keywords: contingency analysis; distribution; missing phonemes; phoneme inventory

Brown_missing_phonemes

Think pieces:

On the etymology of name Europa: Keftiw/Minoan deity Erupa/Erupā from London Medical Papyrus

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

In London Medical Papyrus, in incantation against samuna ubuqi illness there are two names of Keftiw deities. One of them has been determined as Erupa/Erupā that evidently is correlated with Europa of ancient Greek mythology. Key points of Greek myth are the following: Europa is connected with bull and with Crete. Keftiw/Minoan and Hattic seem to be relative, so it’s possible to make some conclusion on Keftiw word using Hattic:  word Erupa/Erupā seems to contain root *rup that can be correlated with Hattic root *lup that is a variant of word milup “bull”; this fact correlates well with facts known about Europa from Greek myth. Thus, initial meaning of name Erupa/Erupā can be, for instance: “of bull” or “a being/person of bull”. It seems that Erupa/Erupā was somehow connected with bull leaping.

Keywords: Minoan religion; Minoan language; Keftiw language; Keftiw; London Medical Papyrus

Akulov_Erupa

Reconstruction of some Minoan words through signs of Phaistos disc

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

Some signs of Phaistos disc look like pictures of certain items/beings, i.e.: it seems that image of an item which name began with certain syllable was used to record this syllable, so it’s possible to reconstruct some words of Keftiw/Minoan language. Have been taken signs which meanings are evident and which sounds were restored through Linear A and Linear B: sign “house” – wa, sign “shield” – qe, and sign “sheep” – me. Minoan/Keftiw language seems to be a relative of Hattic, so can be said the following: Hattic waael – “house” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “house” begins with wa, Hattic kip “to protect” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “shield” begins with qe, Hattic memen “scream of a sheep” correlates with the fact that Minoan/Keftiw word “sheep” begins with me. Thus, it’s possible to reconstruct approximate initial view of Minoan/Keftiw words: “house” – *ware, “shield” – *qepV, “sheep” – *meme.

Keywords: Minoan language; Phaistos disc; Hattic language; comparative reconstruction

Akulov_Minoan_words

The structure of verbs of Keftiw/Minoan incantation against samuna ubuqi disease from London Medical Papyrus demonstrates close resemblance with the structure of Hattic verb

Alexander Akulov

Abstract:

In Keftiw/Minoan incantation against samuna ubuqi disease from London Medical Papyrus there three verbs: sabujajəjədʒa (a verb of movement), humakatu/humakātu, pawrəj/paurəj (supposedly verbs of oral/mental activity). The structure of these verbs demonstrates close resemblance with that of Hattic verb. In sabujajəjədʒa component sa- correlates with Hattic negative prefix šaš, –bu- correlates with Hattic marker of 2nd person singular subject/agent -u-, ʒa/ʃа correlates with Hattic suffix/particle – (supposedly optative). The component hu- of humakatu/humakātu is probably allomorph of above mentioned –bu-, –ma- looks like Hattic marker of patient/direct object of 1st person –m-. Component pa- of pawrəj/paurəj correlates with Hattic marker of 1st person singular agent/subject: fa-, and -w- correlates with a Hattic marker of object (supposedly an object marker of 3rd person).

Keywords: Minoan language; Keftiw language; Hattic language; comparative linguistics

Akulov_Keftiw_Hattic

Kuzu people

Tresi Nonno

Abstract:

Kuzu is one of autochthonic ethnic groups described in Nihon shoki. There is a rather detailed description of Kuzu people in 4th section of 10th (the scroll about emperor Ōjin) scroll and a short note in 3rd section of 3rd scroll (the scroll about emperor Jimmu). Kuzu seems to be a subgroup of Ainu because of the following: 1) Kuzu people lived alongside the river of Yoshino in mountain forest area; their food was: chestnuts, mushrooms, frogs and trout; 2) it is said that Kuzu people strike their mouth when they sing, that looks much alike description of playing a jaw harp (jaw harp has been well known in Ainu culture since long ago); 3) word Kuzu looks much alike Ainu word kur [kuɾ] that means “human being”, “man” and that was widely used in self-namings by Ainu.

Keywords: Kuzu people; evidences of Ainu in Nihon shoki; Ainu history; Ainu; Nihon shoki

Nonno_Kuzu