Prefixation Ability Index as a mean that allows us to see whether certain languages can potentially be genetically related
Language is structure but not a heap of lexemes so typology should be base of historical linguistics. Volodin noticed that there are languages that have prefixation and languages that have not. However, since there is no ridge between two types so it’s more precise to speak about Prefixation Ability Index (i.e. PAI) rather than just ask “does a language allow prefixation”. PAI theory supposes there is correlation between values of PAI of genetically related languages. Tests of PAI on the material of well assembled stocks have proven that such correlation exists. Being applied to such unsettled hypotheses as: Nostratic hypothesis, Ainu – Altaic relationship and Ainu – Nivkh relationship PAI has shown that these hypotheses are completely off base, while search of Ainu relatives in Southern direction can potentially be perspective. PAI can be useful in the cases of other unsettled languages: in North America, in Papua, in Africa and so on.
Key words: historical linguistics, typology, PAI, Ainu, Nivkh, Nostratic, Austronesian, Mon-Khmer
The closure of corpok-kur problem or once again on relationship between Jōmon and Ainu
Anthropologists who did fieldwork among Ainu in the end of 19th and in the beginning of 20th centuries wrote down legend about mythical ethnicity living in Hokkaido and Sakhalin before Ainu; the ethnicity was named corpok-kur or tonci. Some anthropologists considered the tribe as really existed and some considered it as mythical. The legend inspired some anthropologists to think that Jōmon and Ainu aren’t related. Corpok-kur and ton-ci are clearly etymologized Ainu words; also words that look much alike were used by Ainu to name their dwellings. Geographical distribution of the legend evidences that it was spread there where Ainu were already more or less japanized, i.e.: it was spread in Hokkaido, Sakhalin but was unknown in northern Kuril islands. These facts along with data of archaeology and physical anthropology evidence that corpok-kur is nothing but a mythical tribe while artifacts of Jōmon are products of direct ancestors of Ainu.
Key words: Ainu, Ainu history, Jomon, Ainu – Jomon relationship; corpok-kur; koropokkuru
Thoughts on multiculturalism, nationalism and culturalism
All cultures can be subdivided into two paradigms: cosmocentric cultures (main object of discourse is nature/cosmos) and sociocentric cultures (main object of discourse is society/ morality). Interaction between cultures of the same paradigm is easier than between cultures belonging to different. When something is borrowed without due understanding it usually leads to cargo cults. Europe is a cosmocentric world; Abrahamic traditions are sociocentric. That’s why Europe isn’t Judeo-Christian civilization and Christianity in Europe is nothing but just a cargo cult. Islam is also an item of Abrahamic paradigm and that’s why it’s deeply alien to Europe. Those Muslims who come to dwell in Europe should accept values of secular Europe and should be assimilated. Multiculturalists and nationalists are derivates of the same root: they both like their utopias more than real life. Politics and international relations should be based on cultural anthropology as well as medicine is based on microbilology/chemistry.
Key words: culturalism; multiculturalism; nationalism; cosmocentric paradigm; sociocentric paradigm; cargo cults; Abrahamic traditions; Europe; LGBT
Verbal Grammar Correlation Index proves that Ainu language isn’t relative of Austronesian and Mon-Khmer stocks (a preliminary report)
Lexicostatistical approach is completely off base since it allows attributing a language to different stocks and has no reliable methodology of verification. Language is structure but not a heap of lexemes so typology should be the base of historical linguistic methodology. Having supposed that languages which are distant relatives demonstrate certain threshold degree of correlation of verbal grammar, I tested it on the material of languages which are distant relatives (Hawaiian, Cham, Malagasy, Tagalog). Their Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI) shows values about 0.4 or higher; while VGCI of unrelated languages (for instance, English and Chinese) shows values about 0.3 or lower. According to Murayama Ainu is a relative of Austronesian stock; VGCI of Ainu and Austronesian languages is about 0.22. According to Vovin Ainu is a relative of Mon-Khmer; Ainu and Mon-Khmer VGCI is about 0.24. These facts prove that Ainu isn’t relative of Austronesian and Mon-Khmer stocks.
Key words: typological methods in historical linguistics; typology; historical linguistics; Ainu; Mon-Khmer; Austronesian; Verbal Grammar Correlation Index
Ainu names found in “Gishi Wa-jin den”「魏志倭人伝」
Generally it has been thought that personal names found in the text of “Gi-shi Wa-jin den” can be interpreted through Early Old Japanese. However, until Kofun period there was no wide and regular spread of ‘Korean’ technologies so it’s possible to doubt that Early Old Japanese existed in the epoch of Yayoi. From the other hand wide spread of Ainu toponyms in Western Japan in Jōmon and Yayoi is a common place so interpreting names through Ainu language can be perspective. Having reconstructed original pronunciation of names I realized that names with kǝw/ko/hu endings are met only among names of higher nobility. These endings are supposed to be variants expressing the same word that i.e.: kur “respected being/person” that is usual ending in names of mythological heroes in modern Ainu folklore narratives and could probably be a component of aristocratic names in the epoch of Yamatai.
Key words: Gishi Wajin den; Yamatai; Ainu; queen Himiko
Some preliminary thoughts on the structure of Late Jōmon Ainu language
Pioneers of Ainu language studies (Basil Hall Chamberlain, Neil Gordon Munro) having obviously no notion about the history of the language and knowing only modern Ainu, could correctly interpret place names i.e.: words that were in everyday use in 4th – 5th centuries AD, that Ainu language has changed relatively slowly and on the available material of modern Ainu dialects it is quite possible to reconstruct language of about (1500 BC – 300 BC). Tamura points on the fact that V and VC syllables of modern Ainu actually begin with glottal stop, that means in language of ancient stages only CV and CVC syllables were allowed. Having this information we can conclude that in Late Jōmon Ainu morphemes borders could not be inside syllables. It’s possible to state that Ainu of Late Jōmon was a higher analytical language than modern Ainu, while Ainu of much earlier stage probably was isolating.
Key words: Ainu language history; Ainu language of Late Jomon; language reconstruction