An examination of the calibration of linguistic distance. I. Sensitivity
The interpretation of the calibration of linguistic distance depends on both the model used and on the implementation of the calibration. While these are important considerations and can greatly affect the estimated divergence times, the calibration data themselves are clear evidence that lexical distance is at best of limited value as a measure of language change for divergence times in excess of about 4500 y. Specifically, the data indicate that it is likely that at least 50% of lexical divergence takes place over only 1000 y and that by about 4500 y a 1% change in lexical distance corresponds to a 10% change in estimated divergence time. A measure of linguistic distance that changes more slowly than lexical distance is required if longer divergence times are to be estimated reliably.
Key words: calibration; divergence time; lexical distance; sensitivity
Symbolism and social control of Zangbeto among the Ogu of Southwestern Nigeria
Contemporary global trends undermine African indigenous methods of social control such as Zangbeto masked cult among the Ogu of Southwestern Nigeria. While Zangbeto has enjoyed a great deal of multidisciplinary publicity among Nigerian scholars recently, there are missing emphases on the organizational structure and extant symbolism which enable the cult to function beyond the boundaries of mere vigilantism, serving as an effective mechanism of informal social control among indigenous Ogu communities. This article examines Zangbeto as an integral component of Ogu culture with a variety of symbols that intensify its ethereal and mystical perception by people, as a result of which it is able to function as an effective informal agent of control. It argues that contemporary formal control systems in Nigeria should include indigenous cultural values and methods to attain greater efficiency.
Key words: Ogu; Zangbeto; social control; symbolism; indigenous people; masked cult
Ainu is a relative of Sino-Tibetan stock (preliminary notes)
Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI) can completely answer the question: whether languages are related. VGCI is logical conjunction of two indexes: grammatical meanings sets correlation index and index of correlation of positional distributions of common meanings. If value of VGCI is about 0.4 or more then languages are related; if value of VGCI is about 0.3 or less then languages are not related. VGCI of Ainu and Qiang is 0.41. Due to transitivity of relatedness Ainu is a relative of whole Sino-Tibetan stock. Evidences of linguistics correlate well with those of genetics: Ainu, Qiang, Tibetan have different subclades of Y haplogroup D.
Key words: Ainu language; Qiang language; Sino-Tibetan stock; Ainu relatives; typology; comparative linguistics
Culturalist criticism of queer doctrine
Queer doctrine is generally considered as good medicine for liberation of gender and sexuality. However, actually queer helps not liberation, but oppression due to the following: 1) term queer actually means “freak”, “weird” and thus it represents all LGBT issues as freakish or issues which have no deep historical background and indirectly strengthens heteronormative/cisgender society based on Abrahamic values; 2) queer doctrine has been inspired by Marxism or its derivatives and thus queer doctrine is also an implementation of Abrahamic tradition as far as Marxism is an Abrahamic religion. Liberation of gender/sexuality is completely impossible if we follow Abrahamic paradigm or its derivatives. Postgenderism (radical elimination of gender) is nothing else but just another side of conservative Abrahamic coin. True liberation of gender/sexuality would be multigenderism, but not postgederism, i.e.: in current conditions settling niches for more than two genders would be much more helpful than complete elimination of gender.
Key words: culturalism; LGBT; gender theory; multigenderism; queer doctrine; postgenderism
India Northeast indigenous people adaptation to modern life (preliminary notes)
Indigenous people of Indian Northeast represent a notable example of indigenous people involved in the process of adaptation to contemporaneity. It is important to note that indigenous people of considered region mostly belong to Mongoloid race and speak different languages belonging to Sino-Tibetan stock. The process of adaptation always goes side by side with a huge amount of problems; problems appear when people who have no connections have to live together. Politics, religion and social habits play a very specific and significant role in such cases. An ethnic minority can very easy lose its identity and become not able to survive.
Key words: Northeast of India; cultural adaptation; indigenous people of India; indigenous identity
Resemblance of Ainu ornaments and those of Shang culture
Comparison of ornaments should be the same as comparison of languages, i.e.: should be compared sets of basic elements and positional distributions of elements. Having applied this methodology to Ainu ornaments and to those of Nivkh, Tungusic people, Tlingit, Maori and Shang I discovered that ornamental traditions of Ainu and Shang demonstrate notable resemblance while the rest traditions differ seriously from Ainu. Main element of Ainu and Shang ornamental traditions is rectangular volute, and this element covers almost all available space. This fact also correlates well with data of genetics. This is a strong proof of southern origin of Ainu. Also it can be one of evidences of Ainu and Sino-Tibetan people relatedness.
Key words: Ainu; Shang; ornaments