An examination of the calibration of linguistic distance. Part II Covariates
The assessment of linguistic relatedness is often based on the analysis of word lists to estimate the distance between languages. To relate the distance to a divergence time requires established calibration data and a model representing the underlying processes of language change. However, the available calibration data may be based on different sorts of evidence, come from different geographical regions and represent different language families, for example. Covariates such as these can impact significantly on the estimated divergence time. This reinforces concerns about the selection of calibration data, especially when just a small number of values are chosen.
Key words: dating evidence; geographical region; linguistic distance; model dependence
Commented translation of the Cannibal Hymn
Pyramid Texts include significant information about early Egyptian religion, rituals and society; however, meaning of the majority of spells is not completely clear for researchers. Cannibal Hymn is one of the most famous and complicated spell which is contained in Pyramid and Coffin Texts, so different egyptologists have devoted articles to this interesting spell. In this paper my commented, interlinear translation and transliteration of Cannibal Hymn are represented, and I propose my interpretation of content of this utterance based on Egyptian mythological concepts and ancient Egyptian historical realities. Also are offered explanations of certain unclear words which are debatable among egyptologists.
Key words: Cannibal Hymn; Pyramid Texts; Egyptian religious; literature; myths
The idiom of Phaistos disc seems to be a relative of Hattic language
Language of the disc has reduplication of root (blocks A3, A15) and well elaborated prefixation; it means that Minoan can probably be relative of Anatolian languages, or Hattic, or Sumerian (languages which also have well elaborated prefixation). Having attached readings of some known signs I discovered that certain syllables inside Minoan verbs are distributed in very alike positions as certain grammatical markers inside Hattic verb. For example: all verbs of the disc have se in terminal right positions that correlates with Hattic particle aš which is placed in the same position; there are many verbs with –qe- suffix that correlates with Hattic –e- suffix (supposedly a marker of tense/aspect); blocks A3, A15 have syllable te placed in the same position as Hattic orientation/location marker –te-; block A22 has sylable te in terminal left
Key words: Phaistos disc; Minoan language; Hattic language
History of Japanese culture interpreted in the light of culturalism
Cultures of cosmocentric paradigm demonstrate high interest in nature, high tolerance toward different manifestations of human body. Cultures of sociocentric paradigm demonstrate low interest in nature, low tolerance toward manifestations of human body, high interest in morality. Cultures of the same paradigm communicate rather easily; communication of cultures belonging to different paradigms usually leads to appearing of cargo cults. Communication of cultures belonging to the same paradigm also can lead to appearing of cargo cults: Confucianism in Japan was cargo cult since it didn’t become social lift. Japanese culture is cosmocentric since its base (Jōmon) was cosmocentric. Spreading of rice culture inspired weakening of cosmocentric trend. Kokugaku movement and Meiji Restoration were first steps to the restoration of initial cosmocentric values; however they didn’t deconstruct patterns of cargo Confucianism. True restoration of cosmocentric paradigm began after WWI since values of contemporary Western civilization are much alike those of Jōmon.
Key words: culturalism; cosmocentrism; sociocentrism; history of Japan
On Ainu etymology of names Izanagi and Izanami
Names Izanagi and Izanami are recorded by completely meaningless combinations of kanji; existing interpretations of these names are folk etymologies, i.e.: it means that Izanagi and Izanami seem not to be words of Japanese origin. Izanagi and Izanami belong to the little amount of kami who form spouse pairs: there is about 6% of such kami in first scroll of Nihon Shoki, such type of kami is rather widely represented in Ainu folklore. Ending gi in Izanagi correlates with ending kur used in male names of Ainu kamuy/heroes ending mi in Izanami correlates with ending mat used in female names of Ainu kamuy/heroes. Component izana seems to have originated from ancient Ainu form: *’iso-ne that means “to be bearful”, “to be lucky in hunting”, “to be rich”; and thus, initial forms of Izanagi was *’Iso-ne-kwr “Bearful man”and initial form of Izanami was *’Iso-ne-mat “Bearful woman”.
Key words: Izanagi; Izanami; Shinto; Ainu issues in Shinto; etymology of kami names