The verb of Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu: a general overview
Original data on Kuril-Kamchatka idiom are rather meager, but as far as the dialect is rather close to the dialect of Kushiro/Shiranuka so it was possible to use the data of the last in the reconstruction of Kuril-Kamchatka grammar. When there were no direct data on Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu and when Kushiro dialect offered unique forms which weren’t represented in other dialect, then more universal forms were chosen. The reconstructed idiom has certain unique features: two desiderative forms instead of one; unique negative particle eyn instead of habitual Ainu somo. From the other hand tenses and modalities are closer to those of Southern Hokkaido dialects.
Key words: Ainu language; Kuril-Kamchatka Ainu; Ainu verb
The distribution of phoneme inventory and language evolution
The number of phonemes varies widely among languages, ranging from about 10 to more than 140. The overall distribution of phonemes is positively skewed and can be reasonably approximated by the lognormal distribution. This distribution is generally associated with multiplicative processes from which model-dependent estimates of the rates of growth of language families and the phoneme inventory of individual languages can be obtained. Using the inventories in UPSID, one simple model is used to show that vowel and consonant inventories differ in their rates of growth. While other appropriate models should be considered, this general approach provides a means of learning more about phoneme change.
Key words: distribution; growth; language evolution; phoneme inventory
Some notes on the grammatical structure of a verb from a Minoan incantation from London Medicine Papyrus
Word sabujajəjədja from a Minoan incantation from London Medicine Papyrus is a verb of movement. Its ending: -ja (actually -sha) correlates with -se of Phaistos disc. This -se correlates with Hattic –aš, which correlates with Kabardinian –ś. Kabardinian –ś expresses affirmative mood, so Hattic –aš, -se of Phaistos disc, -sha of the incantation express alike meanings: affirmative/optative. (Previously has been found serious resemblance of Hattic verbal grammar and that of Phaistos disc idiom; also has been proved relatedness of Hattic and Kabardinian). Component sa of sabujajəjədja correlates with Hattic negative prefix šaš. Component bu can be a marker of agent or a compound of agent and patient markers. The rest part of the word: jajəjəd is left-handed triplication of jed that is the main root and that probably means “to approach”. In current context triplication means intensifying. Thus, sabujajəjədja probably means “let it not to approach”.
Key words: Minoan; Kaftiw; Minoan language in Egyptian recordings; London Medicine Papyrus
How to estimate degree of resemblance of semiotic systems?
Alexander Akulov, Tresi Nonno
In order to estimate degree of resemblance of semiotic systems first of all they should be represented as structures to which formal methods can be applied. Semiotic systems should be represented as ordered pair of the following view: < A ; Ω > where A is set of concepts / memes and Ω is a set of contextual distributions determined upon A. Any set of related concepts is A set; any relations determined upon this A form Ω set. Any semiotic system can be represented as set of elements with only two binary relations: subordination and similarity. Elements of Ω sets of certain particular semiotic system are relations existing between elements of corresponding A set. Degree of correlation of two semiotic systems is superposition of degrees of correlation of A sets and Ω sets. The more similar are A sets and Ω sets of compared systems the higher is the index of correlation.
Key words: semiotics; formalization of semiotics; abstract algebra; set theory
Some thoughts on the revitalization of Nanai language
The paper is devoted to the contemporary sociolinguistic situation of Nanai language (one of Tungusic languages), and ideas about its revitalization. Main problems are the following: low activity of Nanai people, gaps between different groups and institutions, lack of good materials for Nanai language learning. I propose some initial actions for attempt of revitalization of Nanai language; main tasks are located in social sphere: to work with the aged people in order to softer their reaction to language competences of the youth; to work with the youth in order to inspire them to learn Nanai language and to make different interesting projects with Nanai language: like music, discussion clubs et c. One of the main tasks is organizing Nanai language nests.
Key words: Tungusic languages; Nanai language; endangered languages revitalization; indigenous languages; sociolinguistics