**Think pieces:**

**Comparing ornaments of Volosovo and Lyalovo potteries by Monte Carlo method**

Alexander Akulov

The technocomplex of Volosovo is supposed to be a continuation of Lyalovo technocomplex. In this paper degree of similarity of potteries of Volosovo and Lyalovo is estimated by Monte Carlo method. Have been taken two sets of potsherds of Volosovo technocomplex (Chernaya Gora and Volodary) and two sets of potsherds of Lyalovo technocomplex (Biserovo Ozero and Nikola-Perevoz). Index of correlation of Chernaya Gora and Volodary is 0.19, that of Biserovo Ozero and Nikola-Perevoz is 0.46, that of Chernaya Gora and Biserovo Ozero is 0.52, that of Chernaya Gora and Nikola-Perevoz is 0.3, that of Volodary and Biserovo Ozero is 0.24, that of Volodary and Nikola-Perevoz is 0.22. Considered sites of Volosovo technocomplex are closer to the sites of Lyalovo technocomplex than to each other.

Keywords: Volosovo technocomplex; Lyalovo technocomplex; Neolithic pottery

**Yeniseian languages and Ainu-Minoan stock**

Alexander Akulov

Ainu-Minoan stock consists of the following languages/families: Ainu, Great Andamanese, Sino-Tibetan, Northwest Caucasian, Hattic, and Minoan. In order to resolve the question: whether the Yeniseian family belongs to Ainu-Minoan stock in this paper Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI) is applied to Ket and Hattic. VGCI can completely answer the question: whether certain languages are related. VGCI is a conjunction of two indexes: grammatical meanings sets correlation index and index of correlation of positional distributions of common meanings. If a value of VGCI is about 0.4 or more then languages are related; if a value of VGCI is about 0.3 or less then languages are not related. VGCI of Ket and Hattic is 0.38, so they belong to the same stock. Due to the transitivity of relatedness Yeniseian family belongs to the Ainu-Minoan stock. Yeniseian family seems to be closer to the Western branch of Ainu-Minoan stock.

Keywords: Ainu-Minoan stock; Yeniseian family; Hattic language; Ket language; Verbal Grammar Correlation Index; comparative linguistics

**Sizes and parameters of the late Neolithic logboat found by ****A.A. Inostrantsev in the southern coast of Lake Ladoga (preliminary notes)**

Alexander Akulov, Nadya Efimova

A fragment of a late Neolithic logboat was found by A. A. Inostrantsev during the constructing of the New Syas canal that took place in 1878 – 1880. The fragment is supposed to be a stern part. The boat was made of oak. The total length of the logboat was no less than 350 cm. For the manufacturing of such a boat is required a trunk with a diameter of at least 75 cm (without bark) and the distance from the bottom of the tree to the crown should be at least 4 m. There were two bulkheads which were carved from the same tree as the boat and were not inserted later, so they were an integral part of the boat. The middle section was intended for the rower; bow and stern sections could be used for some cargoes. The boat was intended for navigation in quiet water.

Keywords: logboat; Neolithic boat; experimental archaeology

**An attempt to estimate the change of correlation index that happens in comparing ornamental traditions by the Monte Carlo method**

Tresi Nonno

Monte Carlo method allows us to estimate the correlation index of two sets of randomly broken potsherds. A problem of the method is that conclusions about the degree of proximity can strongly depend on amounts of potsherds/elements in the compared sets. In order to clarify this point and to check whether a correction coefficient can be inserted into the formula of Monte Carlo some experiments of comparison of model sets have been made. Have been compared two sets modeling real sets of potsherds: one set (A) had 5 elements and another set (B) 7 elements, then the number of elements of A gradually decreased by one element upon each step and were made comparison of different variants of new A with B. Now the received results don’t represent any regularity, it isn’t possible to speak about correction coefficients and experiments should be continued.

Keywords: mathematical semiotics; ornaments of pottery; semiotics

Nonno_Monte Carlo_change_estimation

**The procedure of comparison of entire vessels ornamentations**

In this paper is described a procedure of comparing of ornamentations of entire vessels. Ornaments are the same systems as grammars of languages: any ornament is <A; Ω> pair, where A is a set of ornamental elements and Ω is a set of positional distributions elements of A, thus, comparing of ornaments is the same procedure as comparing of languages. The scheme of comparison is the following: 1) should be compared sets of elements forming ornaments: should be estimated the proximity index of two sets of ornamental elements; 2) should be estimated the proximity index of positional distributions of common elements (elements of a certain ornament can be localized in top, middle and/or bottom of a vessel); 3) the proximity index of two ornaments is a superposition of proximity index of sets of ornamental elements and the proximity index of positional distributions of common elements.

Keywords: ornaments of pottery; mathematical semiotics; semiotics