The bear stones of Olkhovka
The complex of sacral stones of Olkhovka is usually dated to the Iron Age and to the Middle Ages. However, there are some facts indicating that the stones could be used by the Neolithic people yet. Finnish/Karelian name of Olkhovka was Lapinlahti (literally: “Sami bay”). The practice of cup stones is unknown in Sami culture, but there is the cult of noticeable stones (the cult of sieidis). The word sieidi/sejjd has no Uralic etymology, but can be explained through Hattic šail – “lord”, “master”. Ancient Sami had contacts with the Neolithic population of the Russian Northwest, which spoke a language that was a juncture between Yeniseian, Hattic, and Caucasian languages. Also a noteworthy fact is that almost all stones with artificially created cups resemble lying/sitting bears, and so ritual practices around these stones could be formed by the Neolithic people yet, who definitely had certain bear rites and bear myths.
Keywords: sacral stones; Sami; pre-Sami substratum; Paja Ul Deˀŋ
The deciphering of the Linear A tablet Malia 10
The Linear A tablet Malia 10 has inscriptions on four sides of six. Sides A and B have relatively well-preserved inscriptions containing syllabograms, logograms depicting different vessels, and numerals. Previously it was shown that Minoan and Hattic are rather close, so phrases from the tablet can be decoded through Hattic. The component tew from the phrase dupitewa from side B correlates with Hattic tepušne/tewuušne “libation”. The -a ending correlates with Hattic imperative -a. The component –u– in the syllable du correlates with Hattic marker of 2sgsb- u– / un-. The syllable pi correlates with Hattic marker of plural object –p-. The phrase ru from the side A correlates with Hattic verb lu “to be able”.
Keywords: Linear A; Minoan language; Hattic language
The etymology of the toponyms of Murino and Murom
Alexander Akulov, Yelena Kolesnikova
Near Saint Petersburg there is a town named Murino. The toponym has no reliable etymology but seems to be connected with Murom. Murom also has no reliable etymology. Folklore says that in Murino and in Murom there were dense forests where different criminals and devilry dwelled. Thus, both toponyms seem to be connected with forest. In Kildin Sami there is the word murr “tree” that has no Uralic etymology, but can be explained through Proto-Nakh *murq̇a “alder-tree” and Proto-West Caucasian maźV “pine-tree”. Sami had direct contacts with the Neolithic people, and it is supposed that these toponyms came from the language of Neolithic people who spoke a language that was a juncture between Yeniseian and Caucasian languages. Toponyms Murino and Murom mean probably the forest that was used as a place of residence by the relict groups of Neolithic people who maintained their culture in the Metal age.
Keywords: Pre-Uralic toponyms; substrate toponyms; Murino; Murom; Muri Deˀŋ
Some place names of Ainu origin in the islands of Ryūkyū: toponyms with the component pira/hira
In the islands of Ryūkyū there are some toponyms containing the component pira/hira that originated from the Ainu word pira “cliff” / “rock”: Kabiraiishizaki in the island of Ishigaki, the island of Hirari near Ishigaki, Kotohira in the island of Yoron, Takahira in the island of Takeshima, and Takahira in the island of Yakushima. The component pira/hira can’t originate from any other language except Ainu. Toponyms with the same component pira/hira exist in Hokkaidō. Toponyms with the pira/hira component evidently should be traced back to the Jōmon language. The fact that toponyms of Jōmon origin can be decoded through modern Ainu means that the language of Jōmon and modern Ainu are pretty close. The fact that in the islands of Ryūkyū there are toponyms with the same component as in the island of Hokkaidō means that in ancient times Ainu inhabited the whole Japanese archipelago from Ryūkyū to Hokkaidō.
Keywords: Ryūkyū islands; Ainu toponymy; Ainu language; Jōmon language; substrate toponymy
Beira, Mari, and Indo-Europeanization of non-Indo-European Divinities
It has often been thought that the Basques, in language and religion, are completely free of Indo-European influence. And, as this paper shows, this is certainly not the case. The chief of the Basque pantheon, Mari, is shown to have extreme influence from the Celtic peoples that surrounded the ancestors of the Basques on all sides. This paper will focus on the comparison between Mari and the Irish Cailleach Bheara. I propose regular sound correspondences between the names of Mari and Bheara. Also, I will show sound correspondences between the words for colors turning up in Celtic and Basque religion proposed by Zelikov. These points show that the Celts had a great amount of influence on Basque religion.
Keywords: Basque Studies, Basque Religion, Cailleach, Celtic Studies, Celtic Religion