Northeast Caucasian languages and the Ainu-Minoan stock
The hypothesis that Northwest and Northeast Caucasian languages are related was proposed by S. A. Starostin, however, the methodology used by Starostin (comparison of the so-called basic vocabulary) cannot resolve the question of whether the compared languages are related. The only tool that can detect the relatedness of certain languages is the comparison of grammar. Previously it was proved that the Northwest Caucasian family is a part of the Ainu-Minoan stock. In this paper the question of whether Northeast Caucasian languages are related to the Ainu-Minoan stock is resolved by Verb Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI): Tabasaran is compared with Kabardian. If the value of VGCI is about 0.4 or more then compared languages are related. VGCI of Tabasaran and Kabardian is 0.39, so they belong to the same family, and due to the transitivity of relatedness Northeast Caucasian languages belong to the Ainu-Minoan stock.
Keywords: Northwest Caucasian languages; Northeast Caucasian languages; Caucasian languages; Tabasaran language; Kabardian language; Verb Grammar Correlation Index
The etymology of the hydronym Syas
The hydronym of Syas has no well-proved etymology. It is supposed that the hydronym originated from Finnic roots: sääski (or sääksi) that means “osprey” or “mosquito”. Both versions look like folk etymologies: in the territory of the Leningrad region any river can be named “Mosquito river”; the second version looks too poetic to be realistic. The hydronym Syas correlates well with Southern Ket śaś “rivers” and Arin sat “river”, and thus the hydronym could have originated from the language of so-called Paja Ul Deˀŋ. The hydronym could be borrowed through the Sami language: in Kildin Sami there is the word čad’z’ – “water” that has no Uralic etymology, but can be correlated with Southern Ket śaś “rivers”. Yet in the 13th century there was a compact Sami population on the southern shore of Lake Ladoga not far from the Syas river.
Keywords: Syas river; Paja Ul Deˀŋ; Sami language; substrate hydronyms
Whether there were wars in the Stone Age?
Alexander Akulov, Tresi Nonno
It is incorrect to consider any conflict/violence as war. War is violence performed by a special group of people according to a special plan and with the use of special tools intended to kill people; such tools differ from household/hunting tools. The existence of wars is detected by the existence of weapon: no weapon – no war. The territory of the Japanese archipelago is one of the best-excavated regions, so Japanese data can be used as a standard. In Japanese prehistory Jōmon corresponds with European Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, and Yayoi corresponds with European Chalcolithic/Aeneolithic period. One of the main differences between Jōmon and Yayoi is the absence of warfare in Jomon and the existence of it in Yayoi. The scheme derived from the Japanese material is universal: the same can be seen in the East European plain where weapon appeared in the Chalcolithic period and was unknown in Neolithic.
Keywords: Stone Age; Neolithic period; Chalcolithic period; Jōmon; Yayoi; Fatyanovo technocomplex; war; historical reenactment
Social networks, messengers, and mobile phones as evil
Social networks are usually considered as something extremely positive and the most optimistic forecasts and expectations are associated with them. The reality, however, is slightly more complicated, and social networks have negative aspects. The first negative aspect is a tendency to escape meaningful content. Another negative point can be conventionally designated as stereotypization and artificial segregation of ideas. Also social networks serve the standardization of mind and behavior. And also a very negative aspect related to social networks and messengers is the obsession with mobile phones. The fact that there is such a large demand for brainless content is a sign that in modern society there are a variety of crises. People should pay more attention to real life and should not hesitate to be unsocial, ‘unmodern’ and complicated.
Keywords: social networks;modern society;mass consciousness; ethnography of contemporaneity
A simple method that allows comparing forms of pots
When archaeologists deal with ancient pottery often appears a need to compare forms of pots. Often the comparison of forms of pots is speculative, in some cases, on the contrary, very complex equipment is used to get a description of a shape of a pot. If the question is to compare forms of vessels then there is no need to compare the actual concrete vessels, should be compared formalized descriptions of forms of vessels. In the current paper is represented a system of notation that allows describing/representing different parts of a vessel in a highly formalized way, any particular shape can be described in the terms of this formalized notation, and these formalized descriptions can be compared just like usual sets.
Keywords: mathematical semiotics; shapes of pots; comparing of pottery; semiotics